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This Chapter covers:

  • Introduction to biochemistry; Importance of carbon and water
  • Carbohydrates; Lipids; Proteins; Structure of proteins
  • Nucleic acids (RNA and DNA); Types of RNA; Conjugated molecules

BIOCHEMISRTY

It is a branch of science, which manages the investigation of synthetic segments and substance forms in living life forms.

WATER (H2O)

Fundamental CHARACTERISTICS OF WATER

Artificially it is “Dihydrogen oxide”

It is the most bottomless part in living cell.

Its sum shifts around from 70 to 90% and life exercises happen in the cell because of the nearness of water.

It is a polar particle, implies that it has a somewhat negative end (the oxygen iota) and a marginally positive end (the hydrogen molecule).

Because of its extremity, H2O atoms frame hydrogen bonds.

Imperative BIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF WATER

(1) BEST SOLVENT

Water is a brilliant dissolvable for polar substances, when ionic substances broke up in water, separate into positive and negative particles.

Non-ionic substances, having charged gatherings in their particles, are scattered in water.

In view of dissolvable property of water, all responses in cells happen in watery media.

(2) HIGH HEAT CAPACITY

Water has extraordinary capacity of engrossing warmth because of its high particular warmth limit.

The particular warmth limit of water is the quantity of calories required to raise the temperature of 1g water through 1ºC.

The warm strength assumes a vital part in water based protoplasm of individual’s metabolic exercises.

(3) HIGH HEAT OF VAPORIZATION

Fluid water requires higher measure of warmth vitality to change into vapors because of hydrogen holding which holds the water particles together.

It gives cooling impact to plants when water is happened, or to creatures when water is breathed.

(4) ACT AS AMPHOTERIC MOLECULE

Water particle acts both as corrosive and a base. As corrosive, it surrenders electron to frame H+ particle, while as a base, it picks up electron to shape OH particles.

H2O ↔ H+ + OH-

It goes about as cushion and avoids changes in the pH of living body.

(5) PROTECTION

Water is a viable oil that gives insurance against harm coming about because of erosion.

It additionally frames a liquid pad around organs that shields them from injury.

(6) AS REAGENT/TURGIDITY

Water goes about as a reagent in numerous procedures, for example, photosynthesis and hydrolysis responses.

It additionally gives turgidity to the cells.

ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

Those mixes containing carbon (other than carbonates) are called organic compounds. E.g: starches, Proteins, Lipids and Nucleic corrosive.

INORGANIC COMPOUNDS

Those mixes, which are without carbon, are called inorganic Compounds. E.g: water, carbondioxide, acids , bases and salts.

MACROMOLECULES

Colossal and very sorted out atoms which frame the structure and complete the exercises of cells are called “Macromolecules” Macromolecules can be isolated into four noteworthy gatherings.

Proteins

Starches

Lipids

Nucleic acids.

MONOMERS

Macromolecules are made out of substantial number of low atomic weight fabricating pieces or subunits called “Monomers” E.g: Amino-acids (Protein).

CONDENSATION

The procedure by which two monomers are joined is called “CONDENSATION“.

In this procedure two monomers join together when a hydroxyl(OH) gathering is expelled from one monomer and a hydrogen (- H) is expelled from other monomer.

This sort of CONDENSATION is called “Dehydration Synthesis” since water is evacuated (parchedness ) and a bond is made (amalgamation).

HYDROLYSIS

A procedure amid which polymers are broken day break into their subunits (monomers) by the expansion of H2O called “Hydrolysis “. It is just reverse of the condensation.

FUNCTIONAL GROUPS

These are specific gathering of iotas that act as a unit and give natural particles their physical, synthetic properties and solvency in watery arrangement. E.g

 

  • Methyl group (CH3-)
  • Hydroxyl or Alcohol group (OH-)
  • Carboxylic acid or Organic-acid group (COOH-)
  • Amino or Amine group (NH2-)
  • Carbonyl group (CO=)
  • Sulfhydryl group (SH-)

PROTEINS

These are the perplexing natural mixes having C, H,O and N as components however at times they contain P and S moreover. Due the nearness of N they are called “Nitrogenous Compounds” Proteins constitute more than half of dry weight of cell. They are available in a wide range of cells and in all parts of the cell.

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF PROTEINS

Proteins are polymers of amino-acids and number of amino-acids fluctuates from a couple to 3000 or much more in various proteins.

These amino-acids are connected together by concentrated security or linkage called “peptide linkage”

Every proteins has a one of a kind arrangement of amino-acids that gives the exceptional properties to particles.

AMINO ACID

It is the essential basic unit of proteins and every single amino-corrosive have an “Amino gathering (NH2-) and a “Carboxyl gathering (COOH-)” joined to the same carbon iota, otherwise called “Alpha carbon”. The have the general equation as:

 

1. A hydrogen atom.
2. An amino (NH2) group.
3. A carboxyl group (COOH)
4. “Something else” this is the “R” group.
R

H2N ─C ─ COOH
(Amino group) │ (Carboxylic group)
H
“R” may be a “H” as in glycine, or CH3 as in alanine, or any other group. So amino acids mainly differ in the R-group.

POLYPEPTIDES

Amino Acids are connected together to from polypeptides of proteins. The amino gathering of one amino acids may respond with the carboxyl gathering of another discharging a particle of water. E.g: Glycine and analine may consolidate to frame a dipeptiede

PEPTIDE LINKAGE/BOND

The linkage between the hydroxyle gathering of carboxyl gathering of one amino-corrosive and the hydrogen of amino-gathering of another amino-corrosive discharge H2O and C-N connection to shape a bond called “Peptide bond”.

TYPES OF PROTEINS ON THE BASIS OF STRUCTURE

There are four fundamental basic levels of proteins.

(A) PRIMARY STRUCTURE

A polypeptide chain having a direct grouping of amino-acids.

Disulphide (S-S) bond is other vital normal for the essential protein.

E.g: Insulin Polypeptide chain.

B) SECONDARY STRUCTURE

In this write polypeptide chain of amino-acids turn out to be spirally snaked.

This snaking brings about the development of an inflexible and tubular structure called “Helix”

C) TERTIARY STRUCTURE

Polypeptide chain twists and overlap upon it self framing a globular shape.

It is kept up by three sorts of bonds. In particular ionic, hydrogen and disulfide (S-S).

(D) QUATERNARY STRUCTURE

This write is normally present in profoundly complex proteins in which polypeptide tertiary chains are totaled and held together by hydrophobic connections, hydrogen and ionic bonds.

E.g: Hemoglobin atom.

FUNCTIONS OF PROTEIN

They Build numerous Structures of the cell E.G: Plasma Membrane.

All catalysts are proteins and thusly they control the entire digestion system of the cell.

Skin, nails, hair, plume, horn and so on contain parcel called keratin.

Casein is the drain parcel and ovalbumin is the egg white protein.

Collagen introduce in bones, ligament, and so on is the most bottomless protein in higher vertebrates.

Protein goes about as antibodies, antigens and fibrin and so on.

CARBOHYDRATES

It is a gathering of natural mixes having carbon, oxygen and hydrogen, in which hydrogen and oxygen are for the most part found in the same proportion as in water i.e. 2:1 and accordingly called “Hydrated carbons” They are found around 1% by weight and by and large called Sugars or saccharides” because of their sweet taste with the exception of polysaccharides.

CLASSIFICATION OF CARBOHYDRATES

The sugars can be ordered into taking after gatherings on the premise of number of monomers.

1. Monosaccharide

2. Oligosaccharides

3. Polysaccharides.

(1) MONOSACCHARIDES

These are called “Basic Sugars”, since they can not be hydrolysed promote into basic sugars.

Their general recipe is “Cn H2n On

They are white crystalline solids with sweet taste and dissolvable in water.

They are available in different leafy foods.

E.g: Glucose, Galactose, Fructose and Ribose and so on. Monosaccharide can be sub-grouped by of carbon iota introduce in every particle. They might be triose, (Glycerose), tetrose (erythrose), pentose, (ribose), hexone (glucose) or heptose (Glucoheptose) having 3,4,5 ,6 and 7 carbon particles individually.

(2) OLIGOSACCHARIDES

These sugars yield 2to 10 monosaccharides mnolecules on hydrolysis

Disaccharides are the most widely recognized and plenteous sugars of oligosaccharides.

These sugars are nearly less sweet in taste, and less dissolvable in water.

E.g: Maltose, Sucrose and lactose and so forth.

(3) POLYSACCHARIDES

These are the most mind boggling and most plenteous sugars in nature.

They are of high atomic weight sugar which on hydrolysis yield chiefly monosaccarides or items identified with monosaccharide.

These sugars are framed by the buildup of a huge number of monosaccharide units.

They are boring and just sparingly souble in H2O.

E.g: Strach, cellulose Glycogen , Dextrin Agar, pectin and Chitin and so on.

Elements OF CARBOHYDRATES

Starches are the potential wellspring of vitality.

They go about as capacity nourishment particles furthermore fill in as a fantastic building, defensive and supporting structure.

They likewise frame complex conjugated atoms.

They are expected to blend oils and are additionally expected to set up the nectar in a few blossoms.

LIPIDS

These are normally happening mixes, which are insoluble in water yet dissolvable in natural solvents. They contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen like starches rate yet in much lesser proportion of oxygen than sugars. These biomolecules are generally appropriated among plants and creatures.

CLASSIFICATION OF LIPIDS

Taking after are the imperative gatherings of lipids.

1. Acylglycerol (fats and oil)

2. Waxes

3. Phospholipids.

4. Terpenoids.

(1) ACYLGLYCEROL (FATS AND OIL)

These are found in creatures and plants, give vitality to various metabolic actuates and are extremely rich in compound vitality.

They are made out of glycerol and unsaturated fats. The most generally spread acylglycerol is triacyl glycerol, likewise called triglycerides or regular lipids.

There are two sorts of acylgycerol

(A) SATURATED ACYLGLYCEROL

They contain no twofold bond.

They soften at higher temperature than unsatured acylglycerols.

Lipids containing immersed acylgycerol are strong and known as Saturated lipids.

E.g: Butter and Animal fat. and so forth.

(B) UNSATURATED ACYLGLYCEROL

They contain unsaturated fats i.e they contain one or more than one twofold security between carbon atom(C=C-).

They are fluid at normal temperature .

They are found in plant likewise called “Oil”

E.g: linolin found in cotton seeds and so forth.

(2) WAXES

Artificially waxes are blends of long chain alkanes and alcohols. Ketones and esters of long chain fathy acids

Waxes are across the board as defensive coatings of foods grown from the ground a few bugs additionally emit wax.

Waxes ensure plants shape water misfortune and rough harm.

They likewise give water obstruction to creepy crawlies, fowls and creatures and so on.

(3) PHOSPHOLIPIDS

It is most imperative class of lipids from organic perspective and is like riacylglycerol or an oil with the exception of that one unsaturated fat is supplanted by phosphate assemble.

The atom of phospholipids comprise of two closures, which are called hydrophilic (water adoring end (head) and hydrophobic (water fearing)end (Tail).

These are every now and again connected with films and are identified with indispensable capacities, for example, regulation of cell penetrability and transport prepare.

(4) TERPENOIDS

It is vast and critical class of lipids containing “Isoprenoid ” unit (C5H8).

They help in oxidation lessening prepare, go about as segments of crucial oils of plants furthermore found in cell membrances as “cholesterol

SUB-CLASSES OF LIPIDS

1. Terpenes

2. Steroids.

3. Carotenoids.

(1) TERPENES

This gathering construct just in light of “Isoprenoid” unit and they are generally unstable in nature deliver uncommon aroma.

Subsidiaries of this gathering are found in vitamin An and are likewise vital constituents of chlorophyll and cholesterol biosynthesis.

They are used in union of “Elastic” and “Latex”, and some of these are utilized as a part of fragrances.

(2) STEROIDS

This gathering of Terpenoids contains 17 carbon iotas ring called “steroid core”.

(3) CAROTENOIDS

They comprise of unsaturated fat like carbon chain and normally found in plants, for instance carotene, xanthophylls and so on.

NUCLEIC ACIDS

Nucleic Acids Were First Isolated In 1870 By an Austrian Physician Fridrich Micscher from the cores of discharge cells. These bio particles are acidic in nature and present in the nucleus.

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