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This chapter covers:

  • Introduction; Ecosystem; Biosphere; Autecology; synecology
  • Biotic and Abiotic componentsa and interaction between them; Food Web
  • Succession; Predation and its significance; Parasitism and its significance
  • Symbiosis; Mutualism; Commensalism; Grazing; Biogeochemical cycles
  • Flow of energy in food chain of an ecosystem

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Provide quality instructional material (video Lectures) for F.SC. & most of the academic courses in Pakistan with special focus on scientific subjects

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