This chapter covers:
- Introduction; Ecosystem; Biosphere; Autecology; synecology
- Biotic and Abiotic componentsa and interaction between them; Food Web
- Succession; Predation and its significance; Parasitism and its significance
- Symbiosis; Mutualism; Commensalism; Grazing; Biogeochemical cycles
- Flow of energy in food chain of an ecosystem
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