The Video lecture from Bioenergetics (F.Sc. First Year Biology) covers second phase of photosynthesis i.e. Light Independent reactions also known as dark reactions. It includes the three major steps of Calvin cycle i.e. Carbon Fixation, Reduction, and Regeneration of CO2 acceptor, RuBP. Find more e-learning material and educational video lectures in Urdu at maktab.pk. These videos are free to use for promotional and commercial purpose by keeping the credits to Maktab.