This video lecture from Periodic Classification of Elements and Periodicity (F.Sc. second year Chemistry) covers: Charges on the atoms of normal elements and their relation with their group number. Variable oxidation states of a few normal elements and typically for transition elements because of Hund’s rule and partially filled d suborbitals. Relationship of charge with ionic and covalent bond nature. Find more e-learning material and educational video lectures in Urdu at maktab.pk. These videos are free to use for promotional and commercial purpose by keeping the credits to Maktab.