This video lecture from Aldehydes and Ketones (F.Sc. second year Chemistry) covers the reduction reactions of aldehydes and ketones. Sodium borohydride serves as the reducing agent generating hydride ions which attack the electrophilic carbon atom and the pi bond, then, abstracts a proton from water molecule yielding an alcohol. Aldehydes give primary alcohols while ketones give secondary alcohols. Catalytic reduction also takes place in the presence of palladium, platinum or nickel catalyst giving corresponding alcohols. Find more e-learning material and educational video lectures in Urdu at maktab.pk. These videos are free to use for promotional and commercial purpose by keeping the credits to Maktab.