This video lecture from Carboxylic Acids (F.Sc. second year Chemistry) covers the preparation of carboxylic acids by the oxidation of alcohols, aldehydes and ketones in the presence of acid dichromate and permanganate. Alcohols oxidize to carbonyl compounds first, primary alcohols to aldehydes and secondary alcohols to ketones. The aldehydes oxidize simply by hydrate formation initially followed by removal of hydrogen or oxidation in the elimination step. Ketones are difficult to oxidize and bond cleavage is involved following Popoff’s rule. Find more e-learning material and educational video lectures in Urdu at maktab.pk. These videos are free to use for promotional and commercial purpose by keeping the credits to Maktab.