This video lecture from Carboxylic Acids (F.Sc. second year Chemistry) covers the preparation of carboxylic acids from esters and alkenes. Hydrolysis of ester gives an alcohol and a carboxylic acid in the reversible esterification reaction. The reaction chemistry of alkenes is also discussed in which a -diol is formed followed by bond cleavage and oxidation (oxidative cleavage) which gives carboxylic acids as final product. The details of mechanism are discussed in the lecture for both methods. Find more e-learning material and educational video lectures in Urdu at maktab.pk. These videos are free to use for promotional and commercial purpose by keeping the credits to Maktab.