This video lecture from Group VA and Group VIA Elements (F.Sc. second year Chemistry) covers an introduction to group VA elements. This group shows unique variations in physical properties from top to bottom. Nitrogen and phosphorous are non metals owing to their small size and high nuclear charge while arsenic and antimony are metalloids. Bismuth is the only metal in this group. These elements show +3,-3 and +5,-5 oxidation states making use of their higher empty 3d orbitals. Find more e-learning material and educational video lectures in Urdu at maktab.pk. These videos are free to use for promotional and commercial purpose by keeping the credits to Maktab.