This video lecture from Fundamental Principles of Organic Chemistry (F.Sc. second year Chemistry) is a continuation of the last lecture on Functional groups. These are sets of atoms or bonds which give a special chemical function to an organic compound. Carboxylic acids (carbonyl- and hydroxyl- groups), Esters (carbonyl- and ether linkage), Acid halides or acyl halides (carbonyl- and halo- groups), Acid amides (carbonyl- and amino group), Alkane nitriles (cyano- group), Sulfur containing organic compounds (thiols, thials, thiones, thio ethers and sulfinic acids) and finally nitro compounds (nitro functional group) and epoxides (cyclic ethers) are discussed in detail with examples. Find more e-learning material and educational video lectures in Urdu at maktab.pk. These videos are free to use for promotional and commercial purpose by keeping the credits to Maktab.