This video lecture from Fundamental Principles of Organic Chemistry (F.Sc. second year Chemistry) covers the concept of hybridization in general in which orbitals with distinct properties produce degenerate hybrids. One s orbital and 3 p orbitals hybridize to form 4 similar sp3 orbitals which allow for the formation of equivalent bonds in a tetrahedral fashion. sp3 hybridization is common in alkanes which form strong sigma bonds having shared electron density maximum along the line joining the nuclei of bonding atoms. Find more e-learning material and educational video lectures in Urdu at maktab.pk. These videos are free to use for promotional and commercial purpose by keeping the credits to Maktab.